Susanne Baer

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Justice of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
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Chair of Public Law and Gender Studies

Public Law and Gender Studies

Socio-cultural legal studies, feminist legal and gender studies, law against discrimination, and comparative constitutional law

Humboldt University in Berlin

Law School - Public Law & Gender Studies
Prof. Dr. Susanne Baer, LL.M. (Michigan)
Unter den Linden 6
10099 Berlin (Germany)

49 (0) 30 2093 3467

Susanne Baer, FBA (born February 16, 1964) is a German legal scholar and one of the 16 judges of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. Baer has been the William W. Cook Global Law Professor at the University of Michigan Law School since winter 2010 and is also a professor of public law and gender studies with the Law Faculty at Humboldt University of Berlin and its dean of academic affairs.


  • Dorsen, Norman/ Michel Rosenfeld/ Andras Sájo/ Susanne Baer/ Susanna Mancini, Comparative Constitutionalism, Cases and Materials, St. Paul: Thomson/West, 3rd edition 2016 (1st edition 2003, 2nd edition 2010).



  • Baer, S., Challenges to Constitutionalism: The Role of Constitutional Courts, Joint Council on Constitutional Justice of the Venice Commission, Mini Conference, Council of Europe 2017, 13-22.


  • Baer, S., The Difference a Justice May Make: Remarks at the Symposium for Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Columbia Journal of Gender & Law 25 (1/2013) 93 – 100.
  • Baer, S., Privatizing Religion. Legal Groupism, No-Go-Areas, and the Public-Private-Ideology in Human Rights Politics. Constellations 20 (1/2013) 68 – 84.


  • Baer, S., Equality, in:Rosenfeld, Michel/ Sajo, András (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law, Oxford 2012, 982-1001.


  • Baer, S., Traveling Concepts: Substantive Equality On The Road, in: Tulsa Law Review 46 (2011) 59 – 80.
  • Baer, S./Lann Hornscheidt Transdisciplinary Gender Studies. Conceptual and Institutional Challenges,
    in: Buikema, Rosemarie / Griffin, Gabriele/ Lykke, Nina (Hg.): Theories and Methodologies in Postgraduate Feminist Research, New York: Routledge 2011, 165-179.


  • Baer, S., A closer look at law: human rights as multi-level sites of struggles over multi-dimensional equality, Utrecht Law Review 6 (2/2010) 56-76.


  • Baer, S., Dignity, Liberty, Equality: A Fundamental Rights Triangle of Constitutionalism, University of Toronto Law Journal 4 (2009), 417-468.
  • Baer, S., Equal Opportunities and Gender in Research: Germany’s Science Needs a Promotion of Quality, in: Tajmel, Tanja/Starl, Klaus (eds.), Science Education Unlimited. Approaches to Equal Opportunities in Learning Science, Münster 2009, 103-110.


  • Baer, S., "Very Sexy" Constructions of the Subject in Law. Remarks on a Task for the "Language Police", in: Olsen, Frances/ Lorz, Alexander/ Stein, Dieter (eds.), Law and Language: Theory and Society, Düsseldorf 2008, 347-371.
  • Baer, S./Barbara Hartung, Country Report Germany;
    in: Europäische Kommission (Hg.); Mapping the Maze: Getting more Women to the Top in Research, 49-51.
  • Baer, S., Options of Knowledge - Opportunities in Science,in: Grenz, Sabine/ Kortendiek, Beate/ Kriszio, Marianne/ Löther, Andrea (eds.), Gender Equality - Programmes in Higher Education. International Perspectives, Wiesbaden 2008, 13-26.


  • Baer, S., Combating sexual orientation discrimination in employment: legislation in fifteen EU member states,in: Waaldijk, Kees/ Bonini-Baraldi, Matteo (eds.), Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating Sexual Orientation Discrimination, Leiden 2004, 209-228.
  • Baer, S., Citizenship in Europe and the Construction of Gender by Law in the European Charter of Fundamental Rights, in: Knop, Karen (ed.), Gender and Human Rights. Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law, Oxford 2004, 83-112.
  • Baer, S., "The End of Private Autonomy" or Rights-Based Legislation? The Anti-Discrimination Law Debate in Germany, in: Miller, Russel A./Zumbansen, Peer (eds.), ANNUAL OF GERMAN AND EUROPEAN LAW, New York 2004, 323-333.


  • Baer, S., Dignity or Equality? Responses to Workplace Harassment in European, German, and U.S. Law, in: MacKinnon, Catharine A./ Siegel, Reva (eds.), Directions in Sexual Harassment Law, New Haven 2003, 582-601.


  • Baer, S., Police Power for a New Century? Constitutional Traps and Constitutional Options Regarding some Authoritarian Trends in Police Law, in : Sajo, Andras (ed.), Out of and into Authoritarian Law, Dordrecht 2002, 151-167.


  • Baer, S., Violence: Dilemmas of Democracy and Law, in : Kretzmer, David/ Hazan, Kershman F. (eds.), Freedom of Speech and Incitement against Democracy, Den Haag 2000, 63-98.


  • Baer, S., Equality: The Jurisprudence of the German Constitutional Court, Columbia Journal of European Law 5 (1999) 249-279.


  • Baer, S., Citizenship, Loyalty, and the Ordering of Gender: On Exclusion and the Relevance of Law in Gender Studies and Feminist Theories of the State, in: Sev´er, Aysan (ed.), Frontiers in Women´s Studies. Canadian and German Perspectives, Toronto 1998, 57-75.
  • Baer, S., Protection against Economic Power in Germany. A Note on Limits of Constitutional Discourse and Problems of Negative Liberties, Diritto Pubblico 1998, 733-749.


  • Baer, S., Pornography and Sexual Harassment in the EU, in:Elman, Amy (ed.), Sexual Politics and the European Union. The New Feminist Challenge, Oxford 1996, 51-65.
  • Baer, S., A Different Approach to Jurisprudence? Feminisms in German Legal Science, Legal Cultures, and the Ambivalence of Law, 3 Cardozo Women´s Law Journal (2/1996) 251-285.